Total 2 Days & 1 Night Needed.
Take an overnight train to Bijapur (Vijaypura). There is a 21:20 train from CSMT, reaching Vijaypura (Bijapur) in the Morning at 07:20 am.
Same train leaves everyday in the evening at 17:35, reaching Mumbai at 05:10 next day early Morning in time for office.
Make a point to leave on Friday night, reach on Saturday Morning, Complete the trip on Saturday & Sunday, take the train back on Sunday Evening, reaching on Monday Morning. There are lots of options for hotel stay as well as transport option. There is whole day Bus Tourist Pass, you can hop in, walk a bit and sightsee or for more easier travel, hire a Bike or Auto or Cycle. All the Monuments are in close proximity to each other with exception of few like Almatti Dam, Sangeet Mahal, Saat Khabar, Afzal Khan’s Tomb.
The below list can be divided into two groups for two days.
Bara Kaman, Bijapur
Jod Gumbaz (Near Mecca Gate)
Taj Baodi and Chand Baodi
Afzal Khan Cenotaph
Sangeeta Mahal near Toravi (6Kms)
Pangarh Fort (Opposite to Lotus Lake)
Sherza Burj (Between Shahpur Gate & Mecca Gate)
Trust me, when I say, your whole two days is worthwhile exploring this monumental City! I have visited this place twice. First was with other places. Second one was specially for Bijapur itself. Detailed trip can be read here.